How to Recognize Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: 10 Steps (with Pictures) #fetal #alcohol #syndrome #article


How to Recognize Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Consuming alcohol during pregnancy can severely harm a developing fetus and may have lasting health and developmental consequences known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). [1] One of the most distressing disorders caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is a lifelong condition and yet one of the most preventable causes of birth defects and intellectual disability. If you notice any symptoms of FAS, see your child’s doctor as soon as possible to help formulate a treatment plan that may alleviate symptoms.

Steps Edit

Part One of Two:
Recognizing the Symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Edit

Be aware of your child’s risk for FAS. The exact cause of FAS is alcohol consumption. The more you drink while pregnant, especially during the first trimester, the greater the risk of your unborn fetus developing FAS. [2] Being aware of your child’s risk for this disease can help you recognize it and get a diagnosis and treatment in a timely manner.

  • Alcohol reaches the developing fetus through the placenta and causes higher blood alcohol concentration levels in a fetus than in you. A fetus metabolizes alcohol at a much slower rate. [3]
  • Alcohol interferes with oxygenation and nutrition delivery to your unborn baby. This can severely impact the fetus’s developing tissues and organs, including the brain. [4]
  • You may have consumed a lot of alcohol before you realized you were pregnant, putting your unborn baby at risk for FAS. [5] Keep this in mind during and after your pregnancy. [6]

Recognize physical symptoms of FAS. There are many different physical symptoms of FAS that may be mild or severe. From distinctive facial features to slow growth patterns, identifying these common markers may help get your child a diagnosis and medical treatment.

  • Symptoms can appear while the baby is still developing in utero or at birth. They may also only present later, such as behavior issues. [7]
  • Facial features such as wide-set eyes; an extremely thin upper lip; a short, upturned nose; and lack of lip folds between the nose and upper lip may indicate FAS. [8] A child with FAS may also have narrow and small eyes. [9]
  • Deformed joint and limbs may indicate FAS. [10]
  • Slow growth patterns both before and after birth may indicate FAS. [11]
  • Vision and hearing issues may indicate FAS. [12]
  • Small head circumference and underdeveloped brain may indicate FAS. [13]
  • Heart defects and issues with kidneys may also indicate FAS. [14]
  • Many symptoms of FAS resemble those of other diseases and conditions. If you suspect your child or another might have FAS, it’s important to see a doctor and/ or get a second medical opinion.

Observe brain and central nervous symptoms. FAS may also present itself as problems with a child’s brain and central nervous system. From poor memory and hyperactivity, observing these common neurological symptoms may help you identify FAS and get your child a diagnosis and medical treatment.

  • Children with FAS may have poor coordination and balance. [15]
  • Children with FAS may have intellectual disabilities, learning disorders, poor memory, trouble with paying attention, or hyperactivity. [16]
  • Children with FAS may have trouble processing information, reasoning, and poor judgment skills. [17]
  • Children with FAS may also have rapidly changing moods or anxiety. [18]

Notice social and behavior issues. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can also manifest itself in social and behavioral issues. From poor social skills to problems with impulse control, noticing these behavioral markers may help you identify FAS and get your child a diagnosis and medical treatment.

  • Poor social skills including getting along with others may indicate FAS. [19]
  • A child with FAS may have difficulty in school or problems staying on task or working towards a goal. [20]
  • A child with FAS may have problems adapting to change or with impulse control. [21]
  • A child with FAS may have a poor concept of time. [22]

Basics of APA Style: An Online Course #bias-free #language,ethics,journal #article #reporting #standards #(jars),references,statistics,tables #and #figures,apa


Basics of APA Style: An Online Course

The Basics of APA Style online course is intended to help all individuals in psychology and related fields learn how to apply the basic rules of APA Style in writing term papers, research reports, and journal articles. The course follows the organization of the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, providing a comprehensive overview of elements of manuscript preparation; each section is followed by two to three review questions.

The course is divided into the following parts:

Writing for the Social Sciences, which reviews types of articles used in psychological and social science research;

Manuscript Structure and Content, which outlines manuscript elements and introduces journal article reporting standards;

Writing Principles and Style, which describes organization of a manuscript with APA Style headings, principles of clear and concise communication, and reducing bias in language;

The Mechanics of Style, which covers punctuation, capitalization, italics, and the use of numbers;

Displaying Results, which offers basic guidance on creating tables and figures;

Crediting Sources, which includes guidance on the importance of citation, appropriate citation level, quotations, citing references in text, creating a reference list, and an introduction to online resources; and

The Reference List, which includes templates and examples of both online and print sources. Reference examples reflect technological innovations in electronic referencing such as the inclusion of the digital object identifier, or DOI, a unique alphanumeric string that provides a persistent link to content online. Many of the topics throughout the course are supplemented with relevant illustrative examples, such as tables and figures, to provide context. The course ends with 20 assessment questions.

Individuals are required to meet a passing score of 75% or higher. Individuals are allowed two attempts to successfully complete the program. If the individual is unsuccessful on the second attempt, access to the online test will no longer be available.

This course has been reviewed and approved by the APA Office of Continuing Education in Psychology (CEP) to offer continuing education credit for psychologists. The APA CEP Office and the APA Office of Publications and Databases maintain responsibility for this program and its content.

Learn how to apply basic rules of APA Style in term papers, research reports, and journal articles. Content includes guidance on writing for the social sciences, manuscript structure and content, writing principles and style, the mechanics of APA Style (e.g. punctuation and capitalization), displaying results, crediting sources, and creating a reference list.

Understand content in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual, including journal article reporting standards, guidelines on bias-free language, and changes in citing and referencing electronic sources.

Plains Indian #plains #indian, #encyclopedia, #encyclopaedia, #britannica, #article


Plains Indian

Plains Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. This culture area comprises a vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains and from present-day provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada through the present-day state of Texas in the United States. The area is drained principally by the Missouri and Mississippi rivers; the valleys of this watershed are the most reliable sites from which to obtain fresh water, wood, and most plant foods. The climate is continental, with annual temperatures ranging from below 0 °F (−18 °C) to as high as 110 °F (43 °C).

Distribution of North American Plains Indians.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

The Missouri River valley provides a reliable source of water and trees in the relatively arid …

Scott T. Smith/Corbis

Perhaps because they were among the last indigenous peoples to be conquered in North America—some bands continued armed resistance to colonial demands into the 1880s—the tribes of the Great Plains are often regarded in popular culture as the archetypical American Indians. This view was heavily promoted by traveling exhibits such as George Catlin’s Indian Gallery. “Wild West shows” such as the one directed by William F. (“Buffalo Bill”) Cody. and a multitude of toys, collectibles, pulp novels, films, television shows, and other items marketed to consumers.

Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World. …

Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, Wyoming/Gift of John S. Bugas and Glenn E. Nielson, Accession No. 1.69.1813

Traditional culture